A closer look at key historic events that took place on July 11:

In 2015, Mexican Criminal Joaquín Guzmán Escapes Prison

Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán, the infamous leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, escaped from the Altiplano maximum-security prison in Mexico. Guzmán’s escape involved a sophisticated mile-long tunnel complete with ventilation and lighting, leading from his cell to a nearby house. He was captured six months later. His breakout was a major embarrassment for the Mexican government and highlighted the extensive corruption and influence of drug cartels in the country.

In 2006, Mumbai Train Bombings Take Place

A series of coordinated bombings targeted the suburban train system in Mumbai, India on July 11. The attacks, which occurred during the evening rush hour, involved seven bombs detonated within minutes of each other on packed commuter trains, killing over 200 people and injuring more than 700. The bombings were attributed to Islamist militant groups, and they underscored the vulnerability of India’s public transportation to terrorist attacks.

In 1960, To Kill a Mockingbird is Published

Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird was published. The book, set in the American South during the 1930s, deals with serious issues of racial injustice and moral growth through the perspective of a young girl named Scout Finch. The novel became a classic of modern American literature, earning Lee the Pulitzer Prize and widespread acclaim for its poignant exploration of human behavior and social issues.

In 1955, the U.S. Air Force Academy Officially Opens

The United States Air Force Academy officially opened its doors in Denver, Colorado. The institution was established to train officers for the U.S. Air Force, providing rigorous academic and military training. The academy has since become a premier military educational institution, known for producing leaders in the Air Force and other branches of the U.S. military.

In 1863, the New York City Draft Riots Take Place

The riots were a violent response to the Union Army’s draft during the American Civil War, with working-class New Yorkers, particularly Irish immigrants, protesting the conscription laws that allowed wealthier men to pay for substitutes. The unrest resulted in widespread destruction, numerous deaths, and highlighted deep social tensions and racial animosities in the city.

In 1804, the Duel Between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton Occurs

Vice President Aaron Burr and former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton engaged in a duel in Weehawken, New Jersey. The duel was the culmination of a long-standing personal and political rivalry between the two men. Hamilton was mortally wounded and died the following day, while Burr’s involvement effectively ended his political career and led to his indictment for murder, although he was never tried.

In 1798, the U.S. Marine Corps is Formally Reestablished

On July 11, 1798, the United States Marine Corps was formally reestablished by an act of Congress. The Corps had been initially created in 1775 during the American Revolutionary War but was disbanded after the war. The reestablishment in 1798 was part of the preparations for potential conflict with France during the Quasi-War, and since then, the Marine Corps has played a crucial role in American military operations around the world.

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